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Rodet Rodriguez-Silva Ingo Schlupp

Resumen

Una de las premisas más importantes de la teoría de Janzen acerca del efecto de las elevaciones en la dispersión de las especies es que, debido al bajo solapamiento en los regímenes de temperatura entre un gradiente de elevación en los trópicos, los organismos que habitan en altitudes elevadas desarrollan mayor tolerancia a temperaturas bajas mientras que aquellos que viven en zonas de baja elevación exhiben mayor tolerancia por temperaturas altas. Sin embargo, algunos estudios han cuestionado la generalidad de las premisas y predicciones de esta hipótesis sugiriendo que otros factores no relacionados a los gradientes de temperatura pudieran explicar la distribución altitudinal de muchas especies en los trópicos. En el presente estudio se someten a prueba algunas de las predicciones de la teoría de Janzen a escala local a través del análisis de la amplitud del nicho térmico en poblaciones de peces del género Limia y su relación con la distribución altitudinal de estas especies en algunas islas de las Antillas Mayores. Evaluamos las variaciones en tolerancia térmica a temperaturas extremas [medidas como temperatura crítica mínima (CTmin) y máxima (CTmax)]. Además comparamos el intervalo térmico en poblaciones de ocho especies de este género que habitan en tres islas del Caribe las cuales se distribuyen en diferentes altitudes. Nuestros resultados muestran que existen diferencias tanto en los límites como en los intervalos de temperatura entre las especies analizadas. Generalmente, las especies distribuidas en altas y bajas elevaciones no muestran diferencias en sus límites térmicos y por lo general estas especies exhiben un amplio intervalo de tolerancia térmica. Sin embargo, las especies que habitan en elevaciones medias muestran un intervalo más estrecho de tolerancia térmica. Los análisis filogenéticos no explican los patrones observados en este estudio. Nuestro análisis no provee evidencia que soporte la teoría de Janzen a escala local en peces del género Limia ya que la tolerancia térmica y distribución altitudinal de las especies no están relacionadas con los gradientes de temperatura esperados en condiciones naturales. Sugerimos que factores abióticos tales como interacciones inter-específicas o especializaciones en la dieta, deben ser considerados para la interpretación de los patrones de distribución en peces del género Limia.

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Palabras Clave

Caribe, elevación, distribución de especies, temperatura

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Cómo citar

Rodriguez-Silva, R. y Schlupp, I. (2021) «Gradientes de elevación no afectan la tolerancia térmica a escala local en poblaciones de peces vivíparos del género Limia (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliinae)», Novitates Caribaea, (18), pp. 46–62. doi: 10.33800/nc.vi18.264.