Miguel A. García


Una biodiversidad reducida y un número alto de endémicos caracterizan los ecosistemas insulares. Especies nativas y endémicas de islas son consideradas más vulnerables que las especies continentales a la invasión de especies exóticas y a cambios en el hábitat. El efecto de reemplazar bosque nativos por plantaciones exóticas de especies maderables fue estudiado en el montaje de especies nativas y endémicas de hormigas. La hipótesis principal consistió en que las especies endémicas y nativas eran más vulnerables a cambios en el hábitat que las especies de hormigas exóticas. Sin embargo, se encontró que las hormigas nativas fueron más numerosas y diversas, tanto en bosques nativos como en las plantaciones exóticas. También apareció un número alto de dos especies endémicas dentro de plantaciones de exóticas, mientras sólamente una especie de hormiga exótica Hypoponera opacipeps fue relativamente abundante, particularmente en bosque nativo. En conclusión, las especies de hormigas exóticas no dominaron las comunidades estudiadas, ni tampoco parecieron impactarse negativamente las especies nativas y endémicas por el reemplazo del bosque.


Palabras Clave

hormigas, vulnerabilidad, nativa, exótica, plantación, islas, perturbación, Isla de Mona, Antillas Mayores

Abensperg-Traun, M., and G. T. Smith. 1999. How small is to small animals? Four terrestrial arthropod species in different-sized remnant woodlands in agricultural Western Australia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8: 709-726.

Adsersen, H. 1995. Research on Islands: classic, recent, and prospective approaches. In: Islands. Biological diversity and ecosystem function. P. Vitousek, L. L. Loope, and H. Adsersen (Eds.), pp.7-21. Ecological Studies, vol. 115. Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, New York.

Adsersen, H. 1989. The rare plants of the Galápagos Islands and their conservation. Biological Conservation, 47: 49-77.

Ambio. 1981. The Caribbean, 10: 274-346.

Armbrecht, I. and P. Ulloa-Chacón. 2003. The little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as a diversity indicator of ants in tropical dry forest fragments of Colombia. Environmental, Entomology, 32: 542-547.

Beal, E. W. 1984. Bray-Curtis Ordination: an effective strategy for analysis of multivariate ecological data. In Advances in ecological research, 14: 1-55. A. McFadye and E. D. Ford (Eds.), Academic Press, London, UK.

Beisner, B. E., J. Hovius, A. Hayward, J. Kolasa, and T. N. Romanuk. 2006. Biological Invasions, 8: 655-664.

Birdsey, R. A., and P. L. Weaver. 1982. The forest resources of Puerto Rico. USDA. Southern Forest Experimental Station, pp. 3-10. Resource Bulletin SO-85.

Blackburn, T. M., P. Cassey, and R. P. Duncan. 2004. Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands. Science, 305: 1955-1958.

Bray, J. R., and J. T. Curtis. 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monograph, 50: 131-151.

Brühl, C. A., E. Thomas, and K. E. Linsenmair. 2003. Size does matter - effects of tropical rainforest fragmentation on the litter ant community in Sabah, Malaysia. Boiodiversity and Conservation, 12: 1371-1389.

Callaway, R. M., and E. T. Aschehoug. 2000. Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasions. Science, 290: 521-523.

Cincotta, R. P., and R. Engelman. 2000. Nature’s place: human population and the future of biological diversity. Population Action International., 23-25. Washington, D. C. USA.

Cintron, B., and L. Rogers. 1991. Plant communities of Mona Island. Acta Cientifica, 5: 10-64.

Clark, D. B., C. Guayasamin, O. Pazmino, C. Donoso, and Y. de Villacis. 1982. The tramp ants Wasmannia auropunctata: autoecology and effects on ant diversity and distribution on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos. Biotropica, 14: 196-207.

Collazo, J. A., and G. I. Bonilla Martínez. 1988. Comparación de la riqueza de aves entre plantaciones de pino hondureño (Pinus caribaea) y áreas de bosque nativo en el Bosque Estatal de Carite, Cayey, Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science, 24: 1-10.

Dalzochio, M.S., E. Perico, S. Renner, and G. Sahlen. 2018. Effect of tree plantations on the functional composition of Odonata species in the highlands of southern, Brazil. Hydrobiologia, 808: 283-300.

Department of Natural Resources. 1974. The Plan for the Management of Carite State Forest. 4-6. San Juan PR. 67 P.

Ewel, J. J., and J. L. Whitmore. 1973. The ecological life zones of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, pp. 3-10. USDA Forest Service Institute of Tropical Forestry. Research Publication ITF-18.

Folgarait, PJ. 1998. Ant biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem functioning: a review. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7: 1221-1244.

Fordham, D. A. and B. W. Brook. 2010. Why tropical island endemics are acutely susceptible to global change. Biodiversity Conservation, 19: 329-342.

Foufopoulos, J. and Anthony R. Ives. 1999. Reptile Extinctions on Land-Bridge Islands: Life- History Attributes and Vulnerability to Extinction. The American Naturalist, 153: 1-25.

Gajraj, A. M. 1981. Threats to the terrestrial resources of the Caribbean. Ambio, 10: 307-311.

Gallardo, B., D. C. Aldridge, P. Gonzalez-Moreno, J. Perg, M. Pizarro, P. Pysek, W. Thuiller, C. Yesson, and M. Vila. 2017. Protected areas offer refuge from invasive species spreading under climate change. Global Change Biology, 23: 5331-5343.

Heany, L. R. 1986. Biogeography of mammals in SE Asia─estimate rates of colonization, extinction and speciation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 28: 127-165.

Hoffmann, B. D., A. N. Andersen, and G. J. E. Hill. 1999. Impact of an introduced ant on native rain forest invertebrates: Pheidole megacepala in monsoonal Australia. Oecologia, 120: 595-604.

Hölldobler, B., and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The Ants. Belknap Press, pp. 378-415. Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass.

Hollway, D. A. 1998. Effect of Argentine ant invasions on ground-dwelling arthropods in northern California riparian woodlands. Oecologia, 116: 252-258.

Hollway, D. A., L. Lach, A. V. Suarez, N. D. Tsutsui, and T. J. Case. 2002a. The causes and consequences of ant invasions. Annual Review of Ecology and. Systematics, 33: 181-233.

Hollway, D. A., A.V. Suarez and T. J. Case. 2002b. Role of abiotic factors in governing susceptibility to invasion: A test with argentine ants. Ecology, 83: 1610-1619.

Krebs, C. J. 1989. Ecological methodology. Harper and Row, New York, 404 pp.

Levins, R., M. L. Pressick, and H. Heatwole. 1973. Coexistence pattern in insular ants. American Scientist, 61: 463-472.

Lubin, Y. D. 1984. Changes in the native fauna of the Galápagos Islands following invasion by the little red fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 21: 229-242.

Lugo, A. E., J. F. Colón, and F. N. Scatena. 1999. The Caribbean. In North American terrestrial vegetation. Second Edition. M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings (Eds.), pp. 34-37. Cambridge University Press. Massachussets. USA.

Martin, P. H., C. D. Canham, and P. L. Marks. 2009. Why forests appear resistant to exotic plant invasions: intentional introductions, stand dynamics, and the role of shade tolerance. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7: 142-149.

McCune, B., and J. B. Grace. 2002. Analysis of ecological communities. MJM software design, Gleneden Beach, OR. USA www.pcord.com.

Myers, N. 1989. A major extinction spasm: predictable and inevitable? In Conservation for the Twenty-first Century. D. Western and M. C. Pearl (Eds.), pp.42-49. Oxford University Press. New York, USA.

Myers, N., R. A. Mittermeier, C. G. Mittermeier, G. A. B. da Fonseca, and J. Kent. 2000. Biodiversty hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403: 853-858.

Passera, L. 1994. Characteristics of tramp species. In Exotic ants:biology impact, and control of introduced species. D. F. Williams (ed.), pp. 23-43. Boulder Colorado West View.

Pimentel, D., L. Lach, R. Zuñiga, and D. Morrison. 2000. Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience, 50: 53-65.

Platnick, N. I. 1992. Patterns of biodiversity. In Systematics, ecology and the biodiversity crisis. N. Eldredge (ed.), pp. 15-24. Columbia University Press. New York.

Porter, S. D., and D. A. Savignano. 1990. Invasion of polygyne fire ants decimates native ants and disrupts arthropod community. Ecology, 71: 2095-2106.

Puerto Rico Climate Change Council (PRCCC) working Group 1. 2013. Geophysical and Chemical Scientific Knowledge. WG1, 21-84. In Puerto Rico State of the Climate 2010- 2013. Assessing Puerto Rico’s Social-Ecological Vulnerabilities in a Changing Climate. Eds. Jacobs, K. R., A. Terando, E. Diaz. Puerto Rico Coastal Zone Management Program, Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. San Juan P.R.

Renner, S., E. Périco, and G. Sahlén. 2016. Effects of exotic tree plantations on the richness of dragonflies (Odonata) in Atlantic Forest, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. International Journal of odonatology,19: 207-219.

Sanders, N. J., and K. E. Barton. 2001. Long-term dynamics of the distribution of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, and native ant taxa in northern California. Oecologia, 127: 123-130.

Sadler, J. P. 1999. Biodiversity on oceanic islands: a palaeoecological assessment. Journal of Biogeography, 26: 75-87.

Siemann, E., and W. E. Rogers. 2001. Genetic differences in growth of an invasive tree species. Ecology Letters, 4: 514-518.

Silva-Taboada, G. 1992. The conservation of animal diversity in Cuba. In Systematics, ecology and the biodiversity crisis. N. Eldredge (ed.), pp. 169-177. Columbia University Press. New York.

Simberloff, D. 1995. Why do introduced species appear to devastate islands more than mainland areas? Pacific Science, 49: 87-97.

Sodhi, N. S., L. P. Koh., and B. W. Brook. 2004. Southeast Asian biodiversity:an impeding disaster. Trend in Ecology and Evolution, 19: 654-660.

Suárez, A. V., D. T. Bolger, and T. J. Case. 1998. Effects of fragmentation and invasion on native ant communities in coastal southern California. Ecology, 79: 2041-2056.

SPSS, 1999. SPSS advanced models manual version 9.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.

Torres, J. A. 1984a. Diversity and distribution of ant communities in Puerto Rico. Biotropica, 16: 296-303.

Torres, J. A. 1984b. Niches and coexistence of ant communities in Puerto Rico: repeated patterns. Biotropica, 16: 284-295.

Vitousek, P. M., H. Adsersen, and L. L. Loope. 1995. In Islands. Biological diversity and ecosystem function. P. Vitousek, L. L. Loope, and H. Adsersen (Eds.), pp.1-4. Ecological Studies, vol. 115. Springer-Verlag Heidelberg New York.

Vitousek, P. M. 1988. Diversity and biological invasions of oceanic islands. In Biodiversity. E. O. Wilson (ed), pp. 181-189. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.

Wadsworth, F. H. 1973. The historical resources of Mona Island. In Mona and Monito-An assessment of the natural resources, pp. 1-37. ELA de PR., Office of the Governor, Vol. II. Appendix N.

Wadsworth, F. H. 1990. Plantaciones forestales en el Bosque Estatal de Guánica. Acta Científica, 4: 61-68.

Wagner, D. L., and R. G. Van Driesche. 2010. Threats posed to rare or endangered insects by invasions of nonnative species. Annual Review of Entomology, 55: 547-568.

Walker, B., and W. Steffen. 1997. An overview of the implications of global change for natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems. Conservation Ecology, 1: http://www.consecol.org/ vol1/iss2/art2.

Wetterer, J. K., D. Lubertazzi, J. D. Rana, and E. O. Wilson. 2016. Ants of Barbados (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Breviora, 548: 1-34.

Wetzel, F. T., H. Beissman, D. J. Penn, and W. Jetz. 2013. Vulnerability of terrestrial island vertebrates to projected sea-level rise. Global Change Biology, 19: 2058-2070.

Wiley, J., and J. Vilella. 1998. Caribbean islands. In Status and trends of the nation’s biological resources. M. J. Mac, P. A. Opler, C. E. Puckett, and P. D. Doran. 2 vol., pp. 103-105. U.S. Department of Interior. U. S. Geological Survey, Reston V.A., 964 pp.

Williams, D. F. 1994. Exotic ants: biology impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Williamson, M. 1989. Natural extinction on islands. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 325: 457-468.

Wojcik, D. P., C. R. Allen, R. J. Brenner, E. A. Forys, D. P. Jouvenaz, and R. S. Lutz. 2001. Red imported fire ants: Impact on biodiversity. American Entomologist, 47: 16-23.
Derechos de Autor
Creative Commons License
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0.

Cómo citar

García, M. (2019) «La vulnerabilidad de hormigas de la hojarasca a perturbaciones forestales en la isla de Puerto Rico, Antillas Mayore»s, Novitates Caribaea, (13), pp. 74-91. Disponible en: http://novitatescaribaea.do/index.php/novitates/article/view/193 (Accedido: 20febrero2019).